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发布时间:2021-03-01    来源:首页12772

Mark Zuckerberg is one of the most powerful men in the world because billions of people give Facebook, which he founded, free access to their personal data. In return, users receive carefully curated snapshots of his life: baby photos, mundane office tours and the occasional 5K.由于数十亿人容许他创立的Facebook权利采访他们的个人信息,马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)出了全世界最有影响力的人之一。而反过来,用户不能看见他经过精心策划的生活概况:婴儿照、无趣的办公室讲解,有时候跑完一个5K。

On Tuesday, observers were reminded that Mr. Zuckerberg, 32, is not just a normal guy who enjoys running and quiet dinners with friends. In a photo posted to his Facebook account, he celebrated the growing user base of Instagram, which is owned by Facebook. An eagle-eyed Twitter user named Chris Olson noticed that in the image’s background, his laptop camera and microphone jack appeared to be covered with tape.周二,旁观者再度被警告,32岁的扎克伯格某种程度是一个讨厌跑步和与朋友安静地聚餐的普通人。在扎克伯格的Facebook账号公布的一张照片中,他庆典了公司旗下的Instagram用户减少。一个名为克里斯·奥尔森(Chris Olson)的Twitter用户敏锐地注意到,在照片的背景中,扎克伯格的笔记本电脑的摄像头和麦克风或许被用胶带遮盖了。

Other publications, including Gizmodo, used the tweet to raise the question: Was this paranoia, or just good practice?还包括Gizmodo在内的其他刊物利用这条推文明确提出了一个问题:这是懦弱,还是好习惯?The taped-over camera and microphone jack are usually a signal that someone is concerned, perhaps only vaguely, about hackers’ gaining access to his or her devices by using remote-access trojans — a process called “ratting.” (Remote access is not limited to ratters: According to a cache of National Security Agency documents leaked by Edward J. Snowden, at least two government-designed programs were devised to take over computer cameras and microphones.)用胶带挡住摄像头和麦克风一般来说标志着此人担忧,也许只是稍微有些担忧,黑客不会用远程访问木马转入自己的设备——这个过程叫“ratting”。(远程访问不仅仅限于远程访问木马的使用者。

爱德华·J·斯诺登[Edward J. Snowden]透露的一些国家安全局[National Security Agency]秘密文件表明,美国政府最少设计了两个用来接管电脑的摄像头和麦克风的计划。)Security experts supported the taping, for a few good reasons:安全性专家反对扎克伯格用胶带遮盖电脑的摄像头和麦克风,是出于以下几个充份的理由: The first is that Mr. Zuckerberg is a high-value target.首先,马克扎克是一个低价值目标。“I think Zuckerberg is sensible to take these precautions,” Graham Cluley, an online security expert and consultant, wrote in an email Wednesday. “As well as intelligence agencies and conventional online criminals who might be interested in targeting his billions, there are no doubt plenty of mischievous hackers who would find it amusing to spy upon such a high-profile figure.”“我实在扎克伯格采行这些预防措施是明智的,”网络安全领域的专家和顾问格雷厄姆·克卢利(Graham Cluley)周三在一封电子邮件中写到。


“除了情报机构和有可能垂涎他那数十亿财富的传统网络犯罪分子之外,毫无疑问还有大量讨厌恶作剧的黑客,他们不会指出暗地监控这么出名的人是一件有意思的事情。” The second is that covering photo, video and audio portals has long been a basic and cheap security safeguard.其次,遮盖照片、视频和音频入口一向是一种昂贵的基本安全性保护措施。

“Covering the camera is a very common security measure,” Lysa Myers, a security researcher at the data security firm ESET, said in an email. “If you were to walk around a security conference, you would have an easier time counting devices that don’t have something over the camera.”“遮住摄像头是一项十分广泛的安全措施,”数据安全公司ESET的安全性研究员莉莎·迈尔斯(Lysa Myers)在一封电子邮件中说道。“在安全性会议的会场上四处走走,遮挡了摄像头的设备会比没有遮挡的多。” Third, Mr. Zuckerberg is not immune to security breaches.第三,扎克伯格也才对要面对安全性威胁。

A recent hacking of his Twitter and LinkedIn accounts shows that he most likely committed two basic privacy faux pas: He may have used the same password across several websites and did not use two-factor authentication.前不久扎克伯格的Twitter和领英(LinkedIn)账户被黑一事指出,他近于有可能罪了两个基本的隐私错误:在多个网站用于完全相同的密码,且并未用于两步检验。Judging from his photo, however, it appears that Mr. Zuckerberg was taking simple precautions to protect himself from anyone who may try to gain remote access. The practice is fairly technologically simple: Hackers trick people into clicking on links or unfamiliar websites containing malware that allows them access to the devices.然而,从前述照片来看,扎克伯格或许只是采行了非常简单的预防措施,来维护自己靠近可能会尝试展开远程访问的人。这种作法在技术上非常非常简单:黑客被骗人们页面不含恶意软件的链接或不熟知的网站。

恶意软件使他们需要转入对方的设备。Mr. Zuckerberg is not the only high-profile case: James Comey, the director of the F.B.I., also puts tape over his computer’s webcam, for surprisingly simple reasons, according to NPR:扎克伯格不是唯一一个采行这种方式的名人:联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯·科米(James Comey)也用胶带遮盖了他电脑上的摄像头,原因非常简单得出人意料。据NPR报导:“I saw something in the news, so I copied it,” Mr. Comey said. “I put a piece of tape — I have obviously a laptop, personal laptop — I put a piece of tape over the camera. Because I saw somebody smarter than I am had a piece of tape over their camera.”“我在新闻上看见的,于是就照着做到了,”科米说道。

“我用一段胶带——我当然有一台笔记本电脑,我私人的笔记本电脑——我用一段胶带把摄像头遮盖了。因为我看见比我聪慧的人也是用胶带菩摄像头的。”People who are not billionaires or high-ranking government officials are not without risk, said Stephen Cobb, a senior security researcher at ESET.ESET的高级安全性研究员斯蒂芬·科布(Stephen Cobb)回应,不是亿万富翁或政府高官的人并非没风险。“For people who are not C.E.O.s, the threat is people scanning the internet for accessible webcams for a range of motives, from voyeurism to extortion,” Mr. Cobb wrote in an email.“对于不是最重要人物的人来说,威胁在于,在网上找寻可操纵摄像头的人有可能是出于一系列动机,从窥视他人隐私到敲诈勒索,”科布在一封电子邮件中写到。


Experts don’t have a good estimate for how often such attacks occur, but according to a 2015 report released by the nonprofit Digital Citizens Alliance, the practice is a growing problem for consumers, especially young women. The report also said that trojans account for some 70 percent of all malware.对于这类攻击再次发生的频率,专家没一个好的估计方法,但非营利的组织数字公民联盟(Digital Citizens Alliance)在2015年公布的一份报告表明,这种作法更加沦为消费者特别是在是年长女性面对的一个问题。报告还称之为所有恶意软件中木马占到约70%。“They’ve been one of the most popular types of malware on every operating system, for quite a long time,” Ms. Myers, of ESET, said. “The best ways to protect against them are to update all your software on your machine regularly, and use reputable security software, including anti-malware and a firewall.”“在非常宽一段时间里,它们仍然是所有操作系统面对的最少见的一种恶意软件,”ESET的迈尔斯说道。



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